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Felis catus original combination [3] Felis cool cat casino live chat domestica invalid junior synonym [4]. The domestic cat [1] [5] Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus is a small, typically furrycarnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines.

There are more than click here cat breedsthough different associations proclaim different numbers according to their standards. Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws, and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals.

They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations mewingpurringtrillinghissing, growlingcool cat casino live chat gruntingas well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.

Cats have a high breeding rate. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by neuteringas well as the abandonment of former household petshas resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control.

Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations.

Since cats were venerated in ancient Egyptthey were commonly believed to have been domesticated there, [12] but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9, years ago 7, BC.

As of a study, cats are the second most popular pet in the US by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish. The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcatwhose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa. Within this family, domestic cats Felis catus are part of the genus Feliswhich is a group of small cats containing about seven species depending upon classification scheme. The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus [31] as proposed by German naturalist J.

Erxleben in[32] but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature. In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild.

This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felidsnotably the Asian leopard cat. Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated.

In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin. Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic due to morphological alternations and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uraliccf.

An alternative word cool cat casino live chat English puss extended as pussy and pussycat. Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatterelated to Swedish kattepusor Norwegian puspusekatt. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat. A group of cats is referred to as a clowder or a glaring[52] a male cat is called a tom or tomcat [53] or a gib[54] if neuteredan unaltered female is called a queen[55] and a juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten.

The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire[56] and its female progenitor is its dam. A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred cat is one whose ancestry contains betfair poker first deposit bonus individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats.

Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired catsby coat type, cool cat casino live chat commonly as random-bred, moggies chiefly Britishor using terms borrowed from dog breeding mongrels or mutt-cats.

While the African wildcat is cool cat casino live chat ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed being subspecies of the same speciesseveral intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other.

The semiferal cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly cool cat casino live chat people and may be fed by several households.

Feral cats are associated with human habitation areas and may be fed by people or forage for food, but are typically wary of human interaction. Cats have seven cervical vertebraeas do almost all mammals buying an online casino 13 thoracic vertebrae humans have 12 ; seven lumbar vertebrae humans have five ; three sacral vertebrae like most mammals humans have five ; and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail humans retain three to five caudal vertebrae, fused into cool cat casino live chat internal coccyx.

Attached to the spine cool cat casino live chat 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis. The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized cool cat casino live chat. When it overpowers cool cat casino live chat prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teethinserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cordcausing irreversible paralysis california online blackjack gambling death.

These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food cool cat casino live chat, and cats are largely cool cat casino live chat of mastication. Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of learn more here visible leg.

This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait ; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals and many other land animals, such as lizards: Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws.

This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore blackjack sites are typically cool cat casino live chat than those on the hind feet.

They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneadingor for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping.

Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly extra toes and claws. Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but cool cat casino live chat several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species.

Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads, [76] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures [77] but may also pant when stressed.

A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.

Cats are obligate carnivores: A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates. However, some of click at this page products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require, [84] and diets containing no animal products pose cool cat casino live chat risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.

Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another proposed explanation is that it is used to supply dietary fiberhelping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and cool cat casino live chat. Cats have excellent night vision and can cool cat casino live chat at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.

Unlike some cool cat casino live chat cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision.

Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and cool cat casino live chat large surface of olfactory mucosaabout 5. Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans or so versus more than 9, on the human tongue. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers vibrissae over their body, especially their faces.

These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage. Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, click to see more perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard.

During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall.

Cats without a tail e. Manx cats also have this ability, since a cat mostly moves its hind legs and relies on conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat. The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early s, it was about seven years, []: Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.

A wide range of health problems may affect cats, including infectious diseases, cool cat casino live chat, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas.

In addition to obvious dangers such as rodenticidesinsecticidesand herbicidescats may be poisoned by many chemicals usually considered safe by cool cat casino live chat human guardians, [] because their livers are less effective at some forms of detoxification than those of many other animals, including humans and dogs.

Many human medicines should never be given to cats. For example, the painkiller paracetamol or acetaminophen, sold as Tylenol and Panadol is extremely toxic to cats: Other common household substances that should be used with caution around cats include mothballs and other naphthalene products.

The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes [] and roughly 20, genes. Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night. Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average.

Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term " cat nap " for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep lightly for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid cool cat casino live chat movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming.

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